Space Weather and Space Climate Impacts


The Sun permanently emits not only visible and infrared, but also energetic radiation (ultraviolet, extreme ultraviolet, X-ray...) and charged particles (mainly protons and electrons) into space. The geospace gets disturbed when their fluxes rage, which can interfere with operation of many devices and services we daily use based on electromagnetic waves and electricity. It is not surprising that the solar activity impacts us increasingly. Luckily we nowadays have many indicators on how solar activity varied over the millennia and therefore we can estimate how significant can be the adverse effects. And as those can be terrifying, we started the efforts to predict them and mitigate the biggest impacts.

We distinguish three types of impacts depending on the users: